|| Books In Egypt
Technology are, in today's world, the main factors of progress. What
is new about technology is its name, the word Techno logia is a
fixed pronunciation and a changeable one through out the evolution
that civilization went through, regardless of the right definition
of the word technology, no one disagrees about the big changes
resulted from the last century's fast and continued technological
The modern scientific and technological are revolution that tied
science to technology presents a document. I might suggest to show
in a geometrical shape the technological development in a
geometrical shape called "Technological Angle" which represents the
outcome of interaction between "science and technology". By
analyzing, in a modern scientific outlook, the knowledge and
techniques of what such related of which would open a new sphere of
knowledge for understanding the development of human civilization.
THE GEOGRAPHICAL AND
In the course of a period
that lasted for several millenniums, Egypt, an ‘island squeezed into
the hollow of the Nile Valley, and bordered on the north by the
Mediterranean Sea, by deserts on the east and west, and by the
infinity of the black world on the south, created a civilization out
of nothing. Behind her lay the immense empty stretch of prehistory,
in which the slightest technological achievement had required
hundreds and perhaps thousand of years of development. And then,
relatively suddenly it seems, the invention of a new tool opened new
possibilities. This tool was probably the hafted hammer or miner’s
pick which, by acting as an extension of the power of the hand,
undoubtedly inaugurated the era of the use of building stone and the
working of quarries and mines. From then on, inventions followed in
This period of gestation
seems to have begun in the predynastic age (fifth millennium B.C.),
and to have ended with the Thinite kings (toward 3,300 B.C.). By the
time of the first Memphite dynasties (Old Kingdom, 2778 to 2420
B.C.), when the pyramids were built, Egyptian technology had reached
complete development. Then, as if exhausted by this great effort,
which had spanned three millenniums, it made little further
progress. From then on, the same mallets, the same copper or bronze
gravers, the same methods of stonecutting and woodcutting, continued
to be used. This end of progress must undoubtedly be attributed to
social life. Starting as a force of innovation by virtue of the
needs it creates, society very often becomes a hindrance to progress
through tradition, routine, and the development of misleading
customs that lead to dead ends.
In contrast to the Greek
and Roman civilizations, which were par excellence urban, Egypt
possessed a purely rural civilization. Just as in modern times,
moreover, her fate was in the hands of the Nile River. Egypt owes
the elements of her comfort to the oily land of the Nile, with which
the Egyptians molded bricks to be used in the construction of
buildings. This type of construction could have continued
indefinitely but for the chance discovery of a new need: the desire
for eternal life. Then Egypt energetically set to work to create the
components of eternity. The perishable architecture of mud, reeds,
and wood was monumentalized by transposing the same elements into
stone. Pharaonic Egypt remained faithful, however, to alluvium for
her private dwellings and even for the palaces of her kings, which
continued to be built of dried brick. But her gods and her houses of
eternity had to be constructed of permanent materials. No material
was sufficiently permanent neither sandstone nor the granite of
Aswan nor the diorite from the desert. Egypt invented techniques
that still amaze us: The people of the Old Kingdom succeeded in
sculpturing with great suppleness of modeling the famous diorite
statues of Chefren that are the pride of the Cairo Museum; they
raised the stones of the Great Pyramids; they lighted the depths of
the mines they exploited without being smothered by the fumes of
combustion gas from the torches. With their scanty stone or copper
tools, they succeeded in piercing cornelian beads, in carving
statues of gigantic proportions from granite.
How these achievements
were accomplished has not yet been solved. They can be explained to
a certain extent by the tireless patience of the Egyptian people,
who conquered the hardest materials with such unlikely methods as
wearing them away. But many of their methods are undoubtedly
destined to remain a mystery to us.
Ancient Egyptians don’t
seem very advanced compared to civilization in the 21st century, but you have to realize we are in a much more advanced time
than they were. We have had a lot more time to develop this far into
computers, televisions, video games, and medical knowledge. They had
a shorter amount of time to develop a water clock, sundial, pyramids
and the tools to build them, and a time system.
A mummy is one of the most recognizable legacies of ancient Egypt.
It has fascinated people throughout history because it reveals
humanity — one can clearly see that this is a human being — and yet
appears to conceal identity: its entire body, including its face, is
hidden from view.
The mummy pictured
above is on loan from the Carlos Museum in Atlanta, Georgia, and can
currently be seen on site at the Museum of Science, Boston. The Beth
Israel Deaconess Medical Center made available to us some of the
advanced CAT scan imaging technology available in the
Northeast, allowing us to generate about 2500 images of the mummy to
be used for the advanced 3D imaging. Mummification was an
important step to ensuring one's afterlife in Ancient Egypt — the
body had to be preserved so that one's ba — or soul — could re-enter
the body for eternity. Mummification was a very effective way of
preserving a person after death and making sure that the ba would
have a place to return to for a long time to come.
The Ancient Egyptians changed from
copper tools to bronze tools because bronze tools were better to
work with. By 200 BC they changed from bronze tools to iron tools.
With these tools, the Ancient Egyptians built great monuments and
palaces but it took them a lot longer than it would take a
civilization today because we have better tools than they did. They
may not have been very high tech, but they knew what they were
doing. They’re the ones who built the Great Pyramids at Giza, and
look at that, today they’re still standing.
|Ancient Egyptian scientists used their
knowledge to think of how to do something big and unique. Then they
thought of how to build useful things inside monuments like levers,
ramps, and rollers that moved heavy boxes.
Have you ever seen a very old building?
It’s torn up, right? Ancient Egyptian pyramids are about 4,000 years old and only have a
few chipped blocks. Well just compare our structures to those built
in Ancient Egypt. Big difference, huh?
The Ancient Egyptians built their
pyramid blocks so tight together that even today, over 4,000 years
after they were built, you cannot stick a razor sharp knife in
between any two blocks. The blocks of the pyramids are so heavy and
big that tornadoes or even hurricanes cannot destroy them.
The Ancient Egyptian calendar is a
little different from ours today. There were ten days in a week,
three weeks in a month, four months in a season, three seasons in a
year, and five holy days. That adds up to a 365-day year. The
Egyptians were the first people to come up with the 365-day year.
Days per week
Weeks per month
4 or 5
Months per season
Seasons per year
Egyptians clocks were much different
from ours as well. There were two types of clocks in Ancient Egypt—a
water clock and a sundial. A water clock sounds very complicated,
but really it’s not. It is a little stand with a pot on the top of
the stand and a pot at the bottom of the stand. The pot at the top
of the stand had a hole drilled in the side. This pot was then
filled with water and the water would flow out of the top pot down
to the bottom pot. When the water was at a certain level, it was a
certain time. The only disadvantage to the water clock was that you
had to keep refilling it.
The sundial was basically a circle with
numbers written around it with a little stick in the middle. When
the stick’s shadow fell at a certain number, it was that time.
One big advantage the water clock had
over the sundial was you couldn’t use the sundial at night and the
water clock you could
| Technology Parks in Egypt
The information technology (IT) market
has grown rapidly in the last few years. The formation of a dynamic
and ambitious Ministry of Communications and Information Technology
(MCIT) in 1999 gave this sector a visible and much-needed boost. The
IT sector is growing at more than 10% annually. MCIT continues to
implement its ambitious plans to increase software exports, which
reached $150 million in 2003 compared to $50 million in 2000. Other
national objectives: train more skilled engineers, support
E-government and E-commerce, and increase IT awareness among the
Egypt's Smart Village (ESV)
The construction of the Egypt's Smart Village is an initiative designed to provide a high tech environment necessary to attract IT companies to set up offices in Egypt. It is located on a 300-acre park just 20 minutes away from downtown Cairo, 10km from the pyramids and is also easily accessible from Cairo International Airport. The Smart Village provides a state-of-the-art infrastructure catering to every company's business needs.
Upon completion of all the phases there will be 58 office plots, accommodating approximately 30,000 employees within a total office area of 1,336,000 square meters. Any company in the IT and Telecommunications sector can rent office spare or buy land and build their own offices in the Smart Village.
Science and technology Academy:-
Founded in 1971, the Academy of Scientific Research and Technology in Cairo is the national body responsible for science and technology. Egypt also has 12 specialized learned societies in the fields of agriculture, medicine, science, and technology. The National Research Center, also in Cairo, carries out research in pure and applied sciences. The Ministry of Agriculture has 20 attached research institutes in Cairo and Giza. Twenty other institutes conduct research in medicine, science, and technology. In 1987–97, research and development expenditures totaled0.2% of GNP; 341 technicians and 459 scientists and engineers per million people engaged in research and development.
Located in Cairo are museums devoted to agriculture, geology, railways, and marine technology. In addition to polytechnic institutes in Cairo and Mansoura, Egypt in 1996 had 13 universities offering courses in basic and applied sciences. In 1987–97, science and engineering students accounted for 12% of college and university enrollments.
Academy of Scientific Research and Technology Of Egypt ( ASRT )
Egyptian academy offering trainings, projects and seminars about scientific research and technology .
The main functions of ASRT, which was founded in 1948, are to support research directed towards solving critical national issues; encourage application of modern technology; formulate policies to strengthen linkages between science and technology organizations; foster basic research and support research institutions; and advance international relations in science and technology. Since 1986, the Academy has been with the Minister of State for Scientific Research, the official spokesman for ASRT activities before the political and legislative authorities.
Dr. Tarek Hussein
Professor Mohsen M. Shoukry
101 Kaser Al-Aini St., Cairo, Egypt
Tel. : (+20 2) 7921286 / 7921287
Fax. : (+20 2) 7921270
E.Mail : Asrt@Asrt.Sci.Eg
Web. : www.sti.sci.eg/scrci/asrt.html
Intellectual Property (AGIP)
Egypt: Agreement Between
Egyptian Academy Of Scientific Research & Technology And The GCC
Patent Office .
20 April 2000
of understanding has been electronically signed between the Egyptian
Academy of Scientific Research & Technology, and the GCC Patent
was signed by Dr. Mohammed Yousry, Head of the Academy and by Mr.
Mohammed Al-Ali Al-Rasheed, General Director of the Patents Office.
El-Rafi, Deputy to the Head of the Academy for Technological
Development and Scientific Services, announced that this memorandum
provides that the Egyptian Center examines patents for the GCC
whether they are Arab, Egyptian or Foreign
Academy will also participate in training and the creation of
technical cadres as well as exchange views on various issues
relating to industrial property in the light of international
changes and new supposed to provide general guide to this subject,
with the availability of data Avenue, which have positive impacts on
decision-making process for the countries in the world Granting a
patent to prove the seriousness with which is one of the conditions
for granting patents .
National Research Center
Prof. Dr. Hany El Nazer
Buhoth St.., Dokki, cairo, Egypt.
Tel. : (+202) 33371362 /433/615/933/449
Postal Code : 12311
Web : www.nrc.sci.eg
NRC was established as an independent public organization in 1956, with
the aim ”to foster basic and applied scientific research,
particularly in industry, agriculture, public health and other
sectors of national economy”. It is the largest of all institutions
affiliated to the ministry of Scientific Research and employs about
60% of all scientists working in these institutions.
sixties and eighties of the last century six divisions of NRC
developed into independent research institutes:
- The national institute of standards.
- Petroleum research institute.
- Central metallurgical research institute.
- Theodore Bilharz institute.
- Ophthalmology research institute.
- Electronic research institute.
Mubarak City for Scientific
Research and Technology Applications (MUCSAT)
Mubarak City for
Scientific Research & Technology Applications (MuCSAT) is the newest
addition of research institutes in Egypt that was directed to the
development and renovation of industry. The City was established in
1993 by Presidential decree and is managed by a board of trustee
headed by the Minister of Higher Education and Scientific Research.
The MuCSAT occupies 250 acres in the industrial area located at New
Borg El Arab City, west of Alexandria.
also inhabits about 40% of the Egyptian industry. The science park
will comprises 12 research centers to be developed at different
intervals. The first stage of MuCSAT was inaugurated on the 13th of
August, 2000. Focus sectors: Biotechnology (genetic
engineering, biotechnology research), Information Technology
(informatics research), Advanced Engineering (new materials),
Nanotechnology (solar cells)
institutions and/or companies :
- Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology Research
- Informatics Research Institute (IRI)
- Advanced Technologies and New Materials Research
- Technology Capabilities Development Centre (TCDC)
Scheduled to be
- Arid Lands Cultivation Research Institute (ALCRI)
- Laser Research Institute (LRI)
- Environmental and Natural Resources Research
- New and Renewable Energy Research Institute
- Fine Chemical Research Institute (FCRI)
- Pharmaceutical and Fermentation Industries
Development Centre (PFIDV)
- Small Scale Industries Development Centre (SSIDC)
- Engineering Industries Development Centre (EIDC)
Technology Valley (STV)
Technology Valley is one of the major projects for socioeconomic
development in Egypt. It is a technopole and is located at the
northwestern access to Sinai Peninsula, on the east bank of the Suez
Canal within the territorial jurisdiction of Ismailia governorate,
covering an area of 72 square kilometers. The "technology valley"
project will be implemented in five stages, in which the investments
in the first stage amounted to nearly 500 million Egyptian pounds.
Coast Technology Valley (NCTV) (under development)
technopole is still at the study stage. The project is being
considered by Alexandria Governorate, the Ministry of Higher
Education, the Ministry of State for Scientific Research and the
Social Fund for Development.
TECA is an FAO
initiative that aims at improving access to information and
knowledge about available proven technologies in order to enhance
their adoption in agriculture, livestock, fisheries and forestry
thus contributing to food security, poverty alleviation and
Fishing Technologies from FIGIS
technology encompasses the process of catching any aquatic animal,
using any kind of fishing methods including artisanal fisheries,
normally operated from a vessel.
Biotechnologies in Use in Developing
gather, store, organize and disseminate, updated baseline
information on the state-of-the-art of crop biotechnology products
and techniques, which are in use, or in the pipeline in developing
Science Exploration Center (SMEC)
Egyptian Physicists Association EPA
Central Metallurgical Research and Development Institute CMRDI - EGYPT
Genetic Engineering & Biotechnology
Research Institute GEBRI
EGE Egyptian researchers of genetic
The Centre develops systems
for autonomous spacecraft piloting and the management of spacecraft
data both onboard and on the ground.
Centers Agency & Nuclear Research Centre
Telephone: +20 2 698-414
Telefax: +20 2 698-899
Hot Laboratory and Waste Management Center (HLWMC)
The Nuclear Research Center
(NRC), one of four research centers under the Atomic Energy Authority (AEA),
is the oldest and the biggest research institute in the AEA. Its
activities are directed towards the basic nuclear sciences, the
front end of the nuclear fuel cycle, the reactors and the
applications of radioisotopes in medicine, industry, and
agriculture. The center houses research and service facilities,
Center for Radiation Research& Technology
This centre was established
in 1972 aiming at promoting research and development using ionizing
radiation in medical, industrial, agricultural, environmental, and
Major research and service
facilities in the centre include the Mega Gamma Irradiation Unit and
the Electron Beam Accelerator.
Research Institute of Astronomy and Geophysics
Helwan observatory Egypt
The National Research Institute
of Astronomy and Geophysics (NRIAG) is one of the oldest scientific
Phone : 002 - 02 - ( 5541100 - 5543111 - 5560046 - 5560645 )
Fax : +202 554 8020
Prof. Dr. Farouk El-Baz
The Center was
established in 1986 as a facility for scientific research in the
fields of archaeology, geography and geology.
We use satellite images and
other data from airborne and ground sensors to study the Earth and
its resources, particularly groundwater.
This includes the monitoring
of environmental changes due to both natural processes and human
In 1997, the Center was
selected by NASA as a "Center of Excellence in Remote Sensing."
Ahmed Zewail. Science and Technology in the Twenty-First Century,A. Zuwail- Noble Winner in Chemistry prize in 1999 from His Majesty the King of Sweden at the Stockholm Concert Hall on December 10, 1999.
Dr. Zewail is the Linus Pauling Chair Professor of Chemistry and Professor of Physics & he was awarded the 1999 Nobel Prize for his development of the field of femtochemistry, making possible discoveries of phenomena on the femtosecond timescale. At present, the focus of his research group is mainly on the development of four-dimensional microscopy for visualization in the four dimensions of space and time, and the understanding of complexity of chemical and biological transformations.
Egypt and Italy to Build DesertSat
Egypt is signing an agreement with Italy to build and launch an environmental satellite. The Italian Space Agency and Egypt's National Authority for Remote Sensing and Space Sciences will jointly develop and launch DesertSat. The spacecraft will be used to monitor coastal erosion, desertification, and agricultural and water resources. No timeline was provided.
The satellite will use the Microsatellite Italiano di Technologia Avanzata (MITA) platform, which weighs about 50 kg and can accommodate payloads of 100 to 300 kg. The platform is reported to cost about 5 million euros.
The project will be conducted in four stages: training of Egyptian engineers and technicians, design, satellite production, and launch. The program may include the construction of a land station for receiving and processing satellite images.